#### Introduction to Circuit Elements Notes

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Electric Network: Any possible interconnection of electric circuit elements.
Electric Circuit: is a closed energised network.
All circuit are networks while reverse is not true example T-network
Types of circuit elements
Unilateral: has different relations between voltage and current for two possible directions of current. Example diodes.
Bilateral: Same voltage and current relation for current in both directions, example resistors, capacitors, inductors.
Lumped: element which is separated physically like resistors, capacitors, inductors.
Distributed: are those which are not separable for analytical purposes example transmission lines in which resistance, inductance, capacitance is distributed along its length.
Linear: These have linear relationship between V & I example resistors.
Non Linear: relationship between V & I is non linear example diode, transistors.
Active: which generate or produce electrical energy example batteries, generators.
Passive: which consume electrical energy example resistors, capacitors, inductors.
Electrical energy sources : There are two types of sources of electrical energy.

1. Voltage source
2. Current source
Independent sources: are of following types
3. Ideal voltage source: constant terminal voltage regardless of the value of current through its terminals.
4. Ideal current source: constant current regardless of the value of terminal voltage.
5. Practical voltage source: voltage across its terminals keeps decreasing as current through it increases.
6. Practical current source: current through terminals keeps decreasing as the terminal voltage across it increases.
Dependent sources: These are of four types
7. Voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS)
8. Voltage controlled current source (VCCS)
9. Current controlled current source (CCCS)
10. Current controlled voltage source (CCVS)

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